Saturday April 10, 2010  8 pm at Jordan Hall
Palace In Desert


The ancient saints often went into deserts (or snow mountains) in search of serenity and Truth
(and God) while the mere mortals built Palaces or temples to dispel the desolations in their souls.
The connection between beauty and desolations (ideals and desperations) has long been the inner
struggle in which traditional Chinese Musicians indulged themselves like sculptors in a marble mountain.
The noises of humanity and the silent rhythm of nature are the languages of tonight’s concert.
Thus we named the music performed in this very special concert
Palace in Desert.       
- Waifong Loh




Download Flyer

Foundation for Chinese Performing Arts 中華表演藝術基金會presents "Palace in Desert" -- traditional Chinese classical music performed by prize-winning virtuosos on Saturday, April 10, 2010, 8 PM at NEC’s Jordan Hall. Three North America debuts including a rarely heard original ancient tune of the "Beijing Zhihua Temple" 北京智化寺古音樂 on sheng, guanzi, pipa, erhu, flute, xun, and other instruments. The old music preserved by this Temple carries a significant meaning to Buddhist music, ethnic music and Chinese musical history. It has been 26 generations of masters teaching and existed more than 560 years. The original style remains intact.

The ancient saints often went into deserts or hills in search of serenity and Truth (and God) while the mere mortals built palaces or temples to dispel the desolations in their souls. The connection between beauty and desolations (ideals and desperations) has long been the inner struggle in which traditional Chinese musicians indulged themselves like sculptors in a marble mountain. The noises of humanity and the silent rhythm of nature are the languages of this recital. Thus we named the music performed in this very special concert 《Palace in Desert》. 
► Press Release



  1. 行街  江南絲竹
  2. 河南梆子腔  趙國良 曲
    夏文傑 (
  3. 綠腰  楊潔明 曲
    周懿 (
  4. 離騷  胡建兵 曲
    包鍵 (
  5. 陝北抒懷  馬迪 曲
    陳濤 (
  6. 胡笳十八拍  古曲 胡建兵 編配
    陳濤 (
    塤), 周懿 (琵琶), 蔡振起 (大阮)
  7. 天空  胡建兵 曲
    胡建兵 (
  8. 陽光照耀著塔什庫爾幹  陳鋼 曲
    楊悅 (
  9. 晝錦堂 
    北京智化寺古音樂 *
    管子), 陳濤(笛子),
    笙), 夏文傑(),
    雲鑼 ), 蔡振起()
  10. 花兒與少年  胡建兵 編配
    胡建兵 (), 包鍵 (管子),
    陳濤 (笛子), 夏文傑 (板胡),
    周懿 (琵琶), 楊悅 (二胡),
    王麗娜 (揚琴), 王麗 (二胡),
    蔡振起 (大阮, 貝斯),
    April Centrone (手鼓) 

樂團成員 :



  1. Xing Jie  
    Ensemble South of Yangzi Strings
  2. Folk music of Henan  music by  Zhao  Guoliang
    Xia Wenjie 
    (banhu solo)
  3. Waist in Green  music by  Yang Jieming
    Zhou Yi
    (pipa solo)
  4. Li-Sao music by Hu Jianbing
    Poetry of ancient Kingdom of Chu
    Bao Jian (guanzi solo)
  5. Lyrical feelings of Northern Shanxi music by Ma Di
    Chen Tao
    (dizi solo)

    ~~~ Intermission 15 Minutes ~~~
  6. Hu Jia Shiba Pai (Hu Jia 18 pieces) 
    Ancient Northern Nomadic reed pipe
    rearranged by
    Hu Jianbing
    Chen Tao (xun),  Zhou Yi (pipa),  
    Cai Zhenqi (daruan)
  7. The Sky 
    by Hu Jianbing
    Hu Jianbing (
    sheng solo)
  8. Sunshine Over Tashkurgán 
    music by  Chen Gang
    Yang Yue (
    erhu solo)
  9. Zhoujintang 
    A classic of Zhihua Temple of Beijing *
    Bao Jian (guanzi), Chen Tao (
    Hu Jianbing (sheng), Xia Wenjie (drum),
    Wang Lina (yunluo), Cai Zhenqi (bo)
  10. Flowers and Youth   Gansu folk song
    arranged by Hu Jianbing
    Hu Jianbing (sheng), Bao Jian (guanzi),
    Chen Tao (dizi), Xia Wenjie (banhu),
    Zhou Yi (pipa), Yang Yue (erhu)
    Wang Lina (yangqin),
    Wang Li, (erhu)
    Cai Zhenqi (daruan, bass), April Centrone (hand drum)


Meet the Artists (in order of appearance)

Hu Jianbing 胡建兵 Sheng 笙 soloist

HU Jianbing is a renowned composer and soloist of sheng (Chinese mouth organ.) After graduating from Central Conservatory of Music in Beijing in 1989 he joined Central Orchestra of Ethnic Music. In 1998 He moved to the US In 1999 he founded North America Chinese Music Ensemble. In 2001 he joined the Silk Road Ensemble formed by Yo Yo Ma In 2008 he gave a solo concert in New York with success.

He began his study of sheng, suano and guanzi with his father in his childhood. At the age of 10, HU debuted before an audience as a soloist. At 13, he was admitted into The Art Academy of Gansu Province. Five years later, after graduation he was on the faculty of the Academy. To further his art, he went to Jinan in Shandong Province to study with sheng master Mu Shanping as a private student. HU's music talent was recognized early in his career. In 1983, he was awarded top prize in Chinese Instrumental Music Solo Competition in Gansu Province. In 1985, he was selected by Central Conservatory of Music to study there. He studied sheng with Professor Feng Haiyun, guanzi with Master Hu Zhihou, and composition with Professors Li Bingyang and Guo Wenjing. Four years later he earned his dual bachelor's degrees in composition and performance.

In 1989, HU's guzheng solo piece "Autumn Melody", was premiered in Hong Kong by Zhou Wang. A year later, his commissioned piece "Plum Festival" was premiered by Hong Kong Chinese Music Orchestra. It was then recorded and broadcasted by the Chinese Central Broadcast Corporation. In the same year, he collaborated with famous Chinese music instrumentalists Hu Zhihou and Li Zhengui, and made an album of Traditional Chinese Wind and Percussion Music, which was released by PHILIPS record company. His composition piece "Fragrant as ever" received the Taiwan Original Music Awards in 1993. "Fragrant as ever", along with two other he's piece "Lisao" and "Qiu Sai Yin" played by Hu Zhihou and Wang Zhongshan were released by BMG Hong Kong. In 1994. HU collaborated with Hu Zhihou to research, perform and record traditional Shanxi Hengshan Taoist melodies such as "Things that will never be able to be named", "The Sound of Joy" and "A Lamp". The soundtrack was released by JVC in that year. In 1996, HU toured the US with China's National Ethnic Music Orchestra. In the following year, he joined the Asian Orchestra and toured in Japan and South Korea. In the same year, Central National Orchestra of China organized "The Autumn Melody---- HU Jianbin's music" at Beijing Music Hall. The music columnist Professor Li Jiti wrote an article in the People's Music Magazine, titled "A Branch with Red Apricots is Spreading ----An analysis of HU Jianbing's work". HU was later interviewed by the Chinese Central Television's musical channel. In 1998, HU moved to the New York, and he founded the Chinese Performing Arts of North America. He currently serves as its president.

Many of his works were collected in An Anthology of Guanzi Music published by People's Music Publishing House in 2000. Among those were "Lisao", "Qiu Sai Yin", and"Fragrant as ever", as well as the restored Taoist melodies "Things that will never be able to be named", "The Sound of Joy` and `A Lamp." His "Autumn Melody" has been collected in An Anthology of Guzheng Music by the same publisher.

After touring with cellist Yo-Yo Ma in 2001, he has performed in famous concert halls the USA and around the world, including Carnegie Hall, Lincoln Center, and Merkin Concert Hall in New York City , Sanders Theatre in Boston. In 2004, HU with Bao Jian perform in a concert in Paris organized by Pro Musicis. HU's piece Dancing with Ghosts was featured in the premiere. In the same year HU performed with Bao Jian in the Guanzi and Sheng Contemporary Music Concert at Carnegie Hall; and later HU spearheaded and played in the concert "Masters of Chinese Music" at Lincoln Center. In 2005, He was invited, along with Hu Zhihou and Bao Jian, by Harvard Yanjing Academic Association

to speak at Chinese Traditional Music Seminar. In 2007, HU and Bao Jian were invited by Central Conservatory of Music in Beijing. Consequently, Hu was featured as a special guest performer in the Beijing International Contemporary Music Festival. At the Festival Hu teamed with Bao Jian in a special performance of guanzi and sheng –His composition The Refined Orchid was premiered. In 2008, HU performed with ACJW Ensemble at Carnegie Hall. In 2009, HU with Bao Jian performed in the Museum of Modern Art in New York. In a review of Hu's recent performance the Boston Globe wrote, "He has an impressive command of the sheng and of a broad range of its classical, folk, and modern musical literatures."

胡建兵 , 1983年獲得甘肅省第一屆器樂獨奏比賽一等獎 。1984年畢業於甘肅省藝術學校 , 1989年中央音樂學院畢業後 , 隨即加盟中央民樂團 , 1997年中央民族樂團成功在北京音樂廳舉辦了"胡建兵民樂作品音樂會" , 1998年移民美國 , 1999年負責創建了北美中樂團並任團長 , 2001年加入馬友友《絲綢之路》樂團 。2008年成功在紐約-----大學舉辦個人獨奏音樂會 。
作品有古箏獨奏《秋調》(1989古箏演奏家周望在香港首演 , 收錄在由李萌教授主編 , 人民音樂出版社出版的《古箏曲集》中) , 二胡與琵琶《芽》(收錄在趙寒陽教授的二胡教材中) , 民族管弦樂《梅花祭》(1990香港中樂團在香港公演並由中國青年民族樂團在中央廣播電台錄音播出) , 管子與古箏《香如故》(1993年獲台灣新原人原創器樂獨奏音樂獎 , 收錄在由胡志厚教授主編 , 人民音樂出版社出版的《管子曲集》中 , 由香港BMG 發行CD) , 管子與古箏《離騷》和《秋塞吟》(由管子大師胡志厚和古箏演奏家王中山演奏錄音 , 香港BMG發行CD收錄在由胡志厚教授主編 , 人民音樂出版社出版的《管子曲集》中) , 二胡與樂隊《楚魂
(1997年由二胡演奏家宋飛與中央民族樂團在北京音樂廳首演) , 管子笙與古箏《戲鬼》(由美國職業音樂家基金會委約 , 2004在巴黎首演) , 管子笙與大提琴《幽蘭》(2007 年在北京現代音樂節首演) 。
近年來胡建兵擅長笙即興獨奏的演奏形式 , 提倡即興演奏是中國民間音樂演奏形式的靈魂 。.演奏的足跡遍布美國各地 , 及法國 , 瑞士 , 日本等國家 , 其中 , 著名音樂廳有紐約卡內基音樂廳 , 紐約林肯中心 , 紐約Merkin音樂廳 , 紐約MOMA 音樂廳 , 紐約時報音樂廳 , 波士頓Sanders劇院 , 芝加哥交響音樂廳等 。

BAO Jian包鍵 Guanzi 管子 soloist

A graduate of Central Conservatory of Music in Beijing, Bao Jian has gained tremendous attention as an outstanding performer of guanzi (a double-reed folk instrument of ancient Chinese origin) through numerous appearances as soloist and chamber musician worldwide. Hailed by The Berlin Daily Post for his "pure hallowed music from the East," Mr.Bao has enchanted audiences with his virtuosity and poise. He boasts an impressive list of awards includes the 1998 Pro Musicis International Award and First Prize in the 1995 "International Chinese Ethnic Instrumental Competition" in Beijing.

With immense knowledge of classical and folk Chinese music, Mr.Bao is also acclaimed as a major innovator of contemporary works. UNESCO chose his recording of the song of "Three Layers of Yang Guan" to be internationally published. His performance of "Lin Li " concerto with the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra set new standards for the guanzi . With saxophonist Ken Radnofsky, he premiered Lei Liang's "Extend" at the New England Conservatory's Spring Music Festivals at Jordan Hall. With The Phoenix Symphony, he premiered Xu Zhenmin's "Mooring at night by the Maple Bridge.".

As a recitalist, he has been heard on three continents and is a frequent guest performer at heralded festivals, including the "Festival of Asian Art" in Hong Kong and the "Bao der Weltkulturen" in Berlin. His reputation has earned him mention in " Famous Ethnic Chinese in the World of Arts & Literature". He is currently an artistic director of the Chinese Performing Arts of North America.

著名管子演奏藝術家包鍵1986年畢業於中央音樂學院並留校任教 。1995年榮獲中國民族器樂獨奏國際大賽管子組第一名 , 1998年再獲美國專業音樂家(Pro Musicis)國際大賽第一名 , 期間演奏出訪 , 足跡遍及歐亞美二十餘國及港澳地區 , 演藝精湛 , 佳評如潮 。2000年移居美國紐約 , 現任北美中樂團藝術總監 。

包鍵1994年亞洲藝術節首演個人創作《火》. 1997年由聯合國教科文組織錄製古曲陽關三疊音樂錄影帶 , 在世界各國發行 , 同年參加"中樂國際大賽金獎演奏團"赴香港演出 。2000年在紐約和洛杉磯舉辦六場個人獨奏音樂會 , 與美國著名薩克斯演奏家Ken Radnofsky合作演奏了作曲家梁雷的作品《延伸》 , 作為首席獨奏家隨北美中樂團在全美巡迴演出超過百場 。2002年5月 , 首度與爵士樂合作參加"中國音樂創世紀"在香港、上海等地演出. 2004年3月於巴黎、里昂舉辦四場個人獨奏音樂會 。同年四月在紐約卡內基音樂廳首演管子與笙新作品音樂會 。同年10月策劃舉辦林肯中心《二泉映月》音樂會 , 2006年4月策劃組織來自中國的國寶級演奏家於紐約、波士頓舉辦《百鳥朝鳳》音樂會 , 大獲好評 。2008年10月與鳳凰城交響樂團合作於美國首演徐振民作品《楓橋夜泊》 , 2009年8月應紐約現代藝術博物館(MoMA)邀請舉行專場音樂會 。

包鍵先生是當代管子音樂藝術重要推動者, 也是管子演奏領域最早涉足現代作品的演奏家, 自1984年首演潭盾的作品
山謠後, 相繼首演李賓揚管子協奏曲山神以及旅美作曲家陳怡與周龍等現代管子作品,為開拓管子演奏表現技法做出重要貢獻 , 被譽為中國管子音樂的開路先鋒 。包鍵是首位與西洋管樂家以同等標準競賽並獲勝之華人民族管樂家 , 他經常獲邀參加各地藝術節 , 其中四度參加香港亞洲藝術節 , 在參加柏林Bao der Weltkulturen 藝術節演出時 , 當地主流媒體《柏林日報》褒譽他演奏的音樂"猶如來自東方的神樂" 。包鍵先生的藝術生平已入選世界華人文學藝術界名人錄 。   [top]

CHEN TAO 陳濤  Dizi 笛子 soloist

An internationally acclaimed Chinese flutist, music educator, composer and conductor of Chinese music orchestra, is the founder and director of the Melody of Dragon, Inc., the co-founder and director of Melody of Dragon & the Youth, the artistic director and conductor of the Chinese Music Ensemble of New York and conductor of New Jersey Buddha's light Youth Chinese Orchestra.

Since coming to the US in 1993, Chen Tao has been invited to perform and lecture throughout the country, and in addition to traditional forms, he has won a reputation as a true pioneer in the world of new music. His playing can be heard on several soundtracks of Hollywood movies including Seven Years in Tibet, Corrupter (with the New York Philharmonic), The White Countess and the PBS documentary Under the Red Flag, the Voice of China, Becoming American and Italian movie "Singing behind Screen". In the US, The New York Times called him a "poet in music" and his playing "a miracle of the oriental flute." While on tour in Germany in 1989, the maestro Herbert von Karajan praises him as an artist whom "performed with his soul ."

As a music educator, Chen Tao have been leading the Melody of Dragon collaborating with Midori & Friends foundation, to develop Chinese music culture in numerous elementary schools, high schools throughout Metropolitan area. As a composer, his music for flute "Leaves on Fall River ", for Bawu Music "Phoenix Tail Bamboo beneath the Moon", for Chinese orchestra "Dance of Yun Nan" and many others have been recorded on CD. His new orchestra piece "Mindful of Zen—flute with orchestra" was commissioned by New Jersey Middlesex County Cultural and Heritage Commission. In 2007, his flute & drum music "Dream of Dun Huang" was commissioned by Nai Ni Chen Dance Company and performed as World Premiere at New Jersey Performing Arts Center.

陳濤  , 集教育家 , 作曲家及指揮家於一身 。是紐約龍韻中國交響樂團及紐約龍韻青少年中國交響樂團創始人與團長 。也是紐約國樂團的藝術總監兼指揮 , 及新澤西州佛光青年中樂團的指揮 。他已多次為好萊塢電影配樂 , 包括"西藏七年"(Seven Years in Tibet) , 與紐約愛樂樂團合作演奏"腐蝕者"(Corrupter) ,  PBS紀錄片"紅旗下的中國之聲" , 意大利電影"歌唱背後的屏幕"(Singing behind Screen) 。紐約時報稱他"音樂詩人" 。1989年陳濤在德國巡迴演出"東方長笛的神奇"被音樂大師卡拉揚(Herbert von Karajan) 讚賞為"他用他的靈魂演奏出…."      [top]

Xia Wenjie夏文傑  Banhu 板胡 soloist

Xia Wenjie graduated from the School of the Shanghai Traditional Orchestra. He was the banhu soloist at the Shanghai Opera House and also the principal player of the erhu, zhonghu, and gaohu in the orchestra. While in China, he was involved in operatic productions and has composed several works. In addition, he has won several prizes in solo competitions.

夏文傑畢業於上海民族樂團學校 。是上海歌劇院板胡獨奏家 , 也是國樂團裡二胡 , 中胡 , 高胡的首席演奏家 。

Zhou Yi周懿  Pipa 琵琶 soloist

Pipa artist Zhou Yi is a graduate of the Shanghai Conservatory of Music. As a concert soloist, Zhou Yi has toured Europe, Asia and North America. Recent performances include Tan Dun's Concerto for Pipa and String Orchestra at the Gewandhaus in Leipzig, the Chamber Orchestra Wuerttemberg in Germany, Young People's Concert with the New York Philharmonic, Bun-Ching Lam's Pipa Concerto "Song of the Pipa" with the New York Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra, and "Sisters of the Grassland" with the Ohio Youngstown Symphony Orchestra, the 2008 Spoleto Festival's premiere show "Monkey: Journey To The West", the 2007 Bowling Green New Music & Art Festival and the 2006 Alaska CrossSound Music Festival. Zhou Yi has also delighted audiences in the "Peony Pavilion", "The Orphan of Zhao" and " Ghost Lovers" with the Lincoln Center Festival, and has been heard at the Shen Wei Dance Arts' "Second Visit to the Empress". Zhou Yi currently resides in New York City and can be contacted at

畢業於上海音樂學院 , 曾赴歐洲 , 亞洲和北美巡迴演出 。包括在德國與巴登符騰堡室內樂團(Chamber Orchestra Wuerttemberg)合作演出譚盾為琵 琶及弦樂隊所作"琵琶協奏曲" , 與紐約大都會交響樂團演出林品晶的"琵琶歌" , 以及與俄亥俄州揚斯敦交響樂團演出"草原姐妹" 。不論是在斯波萊托藝術節(Spoleto Festival)的首演"西遊記" , 或是林肯中心藝術節中 ,  "牡丹亭"、 "趙氏孤兒"、"鬼情人" , 周懿的每場演出皆讓觀眾驚喜萬分 。

Yang Yue  楊悅 Erhu 二胡  soloist

Erhu Performing Artist, Ms. Yang Yue, was born into a well-known musician family in Beijing . She began her musical studies on Erhu (a Chinese string instrument), Guzheng (Chinese dulcimer) and piano at age five, and soon began performing in public. A year later, one of China 's most celebrated musical figures, Wang Guotong, heard Yang Yue in a recital and strongly encouraged her to pursue musical studies at the Central Conservatory in Beijing. Wang took Yang under his musical tutelage, providing her with instructions as well as numerous performing opportunities. During her conservatory years, Yang Yue received first prize in the Long Yin Instrumental Performance Competition in 1996, the gold medal in Ministry of Culture Annual Music Competition in 1999, and the Chinese National Cultural Foundation Scholarship in 1997 and 1998 – an honor bestowed upon four out of more than 5,000 musicians. In 1999, Yang Yue was awarded a Bachelor degree with top honors, having served as the solo Erhu player (concertmaster) in resident at Central Conservatory Orchestra for four years . In 2000 Yang Yue became the associate concertmaster of the Chinese Central Traditional Instruments Orchestra. She also performed frequently as a soloist with that ensemble, touring extensively throughout Asia, Europe and North America. In 2009 she successfully performed solo recitals in New York and Washington respectively.

中國青年二胡表演藝術家楊悅小姐畢業於中央音樂學院 , 曾獲得中國"龍音杯"民族樂器比賽金獎 , "天華"二胡大獎賽銀獎 , 和首屆"民族文化基金獎"等殊榮 。她曾擔任中國中央民族樂團二胡獨奏演員和副首席 , 是目前國內二胡表演藝術新秀 。2005-2007她受中國政府委派 , 擔任中國文化特使赴英國 , 德國 , 奧地利 , 美國 , 南非等國家演出 , 傳播弘揚中華文化藝術 。2009年楊悅成功的在美國紐約舉辦-"二胡-兩根弦上的炫動"個人獨奏音樂會及華盛頓"中西提琴集錦"音樂會 。楊悅的演出近年來被國內電視播出30多場 ,  並出版了二張個人專輯 。

April Centrone, Hand Drum

April Centrone is one of the leading classical Arabic percussionists in the US April plays riqq (Arabic tambourine), frame drum, darbekkeh (dumbek), oud and violin, and is also a proficient jazz and rock drummer. April has performed around the city in venues such as Carnegie Hall, Lincoln Center, Symphony Space and Town Hall; lectured at numerous universities, museums and cultural centers around the country; directed and composed music for plays; and has toured throughout Europe, the US and New Zealand. She has performed with artists such as Marcel Khalife, Najib Shaheen, Eyvind Kang and Samir Chatterjee, and with groups such as Kristjan Jarvi's Absolute Ensemble, the Bassam Saba Ensemble and the New York Arabic Orchestra.

CAI Zhenqi 蔡振起   Daruan 大阮 and Bass soloist

Born into a professional musician family, Mr. Cai participated in military performing troupes since childhood. He graduated from Tianjing Music conservatory majoring in double bass. After joining with the Chinese Performing Arts of North America, he performed at New York's Lincoln Center and Carnegie Hall to name a few.

出生在音樂世家 , 從小參軍當文藝兵 。1987年 , 以貝斯專業畢業於天津音樂學院 。曾任中國中央民族歌舞團貝斯首席及電聲樂隊隊長 。參加過數次大型音樂會的策劃與演出 。移民美國後 , 隨北美中樂團曾在林肯藝術中心 , 卡內基音樂廳等著名音樂廳演出 。

WANG Li王麗  Erhu 二胡  soloist

A graduate of Henan Arts Academy, Ms. Wang was the erhu soloist at Henan Providence Arts and Song Troup. An experienced performer, she has toured and appeared at many famous concert halls in New York.

自幼開始拉琴 , 畢業於河南省藝術學校 。曾任職河南省歌舞團 , 期間經常擔任二胡獨奏 。移民美國後 , 曾參加保安民樂團及北美中樂團在紐約著名音樂廳進行過表演 。

WANG Lina王麗娜  Yangqin揚琴 soloist

Ms. Wang has been performing more than 30 years in China with military professional orchestras. Currently, she lives in New York.

在北京著名的軍隊專業樂團演奏30多年 , 積累了豐富的舞台演奏經驗 。現移居紐約 。

北京智化寺古音樂   Beijing Zhihua Temple music

Zhi-hua Temple, situated at the southeastern corner of the ancient city of Beijing, was built in the 11th year of Emperor Ying-zong of Ming Dynasty (AD 1226.) It was a family temple of a shrewd, power playing eunuch, Wang Zheng. Because of his blatant power and position in the palace, his temple was staffed with artistic monks of sophisticated musical cultivation. There music troupes in the Temple were rigorously regimented. Their performances were primarily for Buddhist routines and rituals.
Zhi-hua Temple is now not only famous in Beijing for its architecture and collection of Buddhists sutras, but the old musical scores, instrument, especially its "capital music" are also valuable documents to the music circle. The old music preserved by this Temple carries a significant meaning to the research of Buddhist music, ethnic music and musical history of China.
Around the Dao-kuang and Xian-feng era (1821-1861) of the Qing dynasty, Zhi-hua Temple allowed its music to be taught to over ten other temples. Consequently Zhi-hua Temple became the center for teaching Buddhist music in Beijing . It has been 26 generations of masters teaching the music to the disciples at Zhi-hua Temple. After more than 560 years, the original style of performing their music remains intact.
The music that the 26th generation of Zhi-hua Temple's musician perform springs essentially from the "Scores of the Tune of the Music" These scores were hand copied by the 15th generation Zhi-hua Temple musician during the Kang-xi era of the Qing dynasty . The method of notations in these scores was different from what was used among other musicians of the time. It was, however, in accordance with those used during the Song times. Some were the same as those used in the Tang dynasty. As such , these scores, though copied by Qing dynasty monks, have kept traces of Tang and Song music notation characters. The origins of the titles of the music are richly varied. Such titles as "Wang-Jiang-nan," "Qian Qiu Sui, " were derived from the Tang repertoire; whereas "Shan Jing Si," "Dian jiang" and so forth were similar to songs in Yuan drama. The most of the titles are for religious services, such as "San Bao Zan." "Jing Zi Jing" "Wu Shen Fu" and others.
The music titles po Chi-hua Temple are categorized into "Zhi-Qu" and "Tao-Qu." Zhi Qu are those single composition to be played by itself. Tao Qu are those having several pieces combined together. Those Tao-Qu used during day time services are called "Zhong-Tang Qu"; those used in the evening are called "Liao-Qiao Qu." The structure of Tao-Qu consists of an overture, a body and an ending. For example, in a Liao -Qiao Qu the overture is "Hao Shi Jin", the body comprised Qian Qiu Sui, Zuei Tai Ping, Gun Xiu Qiu, the ending is "Si Ji." This shows that Tao-Qu is a combination of several pieces rigidly regulated.
During a religious ceremony or similar event at Zhi-hua Temple, nine monks would chant sutras and tapping on ritual vessels, and play various instrument. These instruments included 2 reed pipes, 2 strings of sheng, 2 flutes, 2 racks of yun-luo , 1 large drum, one Rao and Ba, one dang-zi and one Nian-Zi. In pipe music, the pipe has nine holes (seven in the front and two in the back.) Sheng has 17 metallic tongues. According to " Book of Music" by Chen Chang of Northern Song dynasty, nine-hole-pipe and 17-tongue Sheng were the old Tang models. Pipes were the lead instrument in the performance, adhering to the original score in it's rhythm and spirit. Sheng must imbue the music with a wealth of rhythm. The flute must be lively, vivacious, freely weaving in the melody. The performers of these instruments must each display his/her expertise, to avoid the possible monotony of a chorus on the one hand and not to be showy on the other. This is the unique tradition of Zhi-hua Temple music.
Zhi-hua Temple music has 4 types of tunes (diao). The musician-monks call them "Cheng, Bei, Jie, Yue." (“正、背、皆、月)” According to study, Jie Diao or Jie- zhi Diao (“ 皆止調") was the same as Xie-Zhi Diao "歇指調" (a corrupted name of He-shi Diao“ 褐石調") of Tang period. Yue Diao (月調) was a miss -write of “ 越調" of Tang times. Bei Diao “ 背調” was most probably the "Bei Si Diao" “ 背四調" of Tang period. As such, it is clear to us that three of the four types of tunes of Zhi-hua Temple music have close affinity with Sui and Tang period music.
From the above we are certain that in matters of musical scores, instrument, tunes, and titles, as well as performing styles and techniques, Zhi-hua Temple's music has preserved the music of Tang and Song periods. In some cases it even traces to more ancient times. It is because Zhi-hua Temple's insistence on the preservation of the original qualities of their music through meticulous, direct transmission of those qualities from teacher to student, disallowing the slightest aberrance or modification, so that their music still maintains (retains ) the specific flavor of remoteness, emptiness, blandness, and serenity of Buddhist music.
The most valuable features of Zhi-hua Temple's Jing music (京音樂) is it's preservation of the ancient music of Song dynasty or even earlier eras of Sui and Tang dynasties. It is a corpus of rarely seen, complete, accurate and truly valuable materials for research within China and internationally on ancient Chinese music. The music of Zhi-hua Temple along with that of Da Xiang-guo Temple of Kaifeng, Qing-huang Temple of Wu-tai shan, and nan-yin 南音(music of the south ) of Fu-jian province, as well as the drum music 鼓樂of Cheng-huang Temple of Xian are the oldest music extant in China.
(Translated by Dr. Doris Chu based on materials provided by Mr. HU Jianbing below. 4-2010)        [top]


座落於北京古城東南角的佛教寺智化寺 , 建於明代英宗正統十一年(公元1446年) , 是皇宮弄權太監王振所建的一所家廟 。由於王振在宮廷的顯赫權勢和地位 , 寺院聘有在音樂方面造詣很深的藝僧 , 設有編制嚴格 , 完整的樂隊 , 他們的演奏主要用於佛事和崽祀活動 。

智化寺不僅以建築和藏經在北京佛學界著稱 , 它所保留下來的古老樂譜、樂器、樂曲 , 特別是它的『京音樂』 , 在中國佛學界、音樂界更具珍貴的文獻價值 。古老的智化寺 京音樂 , 對於研究中國佛教音樂藝術、中國音樂史、民族音樂學等學科有著極其重 要的意義 。

大約在道光、咸豐年間(公元1821-1861年) , 智化寺京音樂向外傳授到天仙庵 , 以後又分別傳授到成壽寺、水月庵、 地 藏寺、夕照寺、觀音廟、火神廟、九頂廟及普寧寺等十餘座寺院 , 智化寺京音樂逐漸成為北京北傳佛教音樂的中心 。如今智化寺的藝僧師徒相傳至今已經是第26代 , 智化寺音樂在管樂和法器的演奏技巧與方法上 , 五百六十多年來仍然保存了歷史的原貌 。

智化寺音樂第26代傳人演奏的曲目主要來源於《音樂腔譜》 。此譜是智化寺第l5代傳人永幹於清康熙三十三年(1649年)沙寫的 。這是一本工尺譜 。譜中記譜符號、點板方式與民間不盡相同 。而智化寺這種記譜方法恰與宋代字譜相同 。其中點板符號"同 唐代工 尺譜一樣 。可見 , 智化寺的《音樂腔譜》雖為清代僧人抄寫 , 但留有唐宋音樂字譜的痕跡 。譜中曲牌來源不一 , 豐富多采 。有與唐代教坊曲同名的《望江南》、《千秋歲》等 , 有與元曲相似的《山荊子》、《點絳唇》等 。其中最多的是為宗教活動服務的曲牌 , 如《三寶贊》、《金字經》、《五聲佛》等 。

智化寺音樂的曲牌分為只曲和套曲兩種 。單獨演奏的曲牌叫"只曲" , 若干首曲牌聯綴演奏的名"套曲" 。白天禮拜《華嚴寶仟 》 時用的套曲為《中堂曲》;晚上施放《瑜伽焰口》時用的套曲名《料峭曲》 。套曲結構模式有所謂序、身、尾之分 。如《料峭曲》 的序曲為《好事近》 , 以《千秋歲》、《醉太平》、《滾繡球》為"身"曲 , 以《四季》為"尾"曲 。這表明所謂套曲是由若干首曲牌按照序、身、尾的曲式排列組成 , 其中轉宮換調都有一定規律 。

智化寺的音樂樂制 , 在辦法會、作佛事時 , 一般由九位僧人誦經、禮仟、敲擊法器 , 分別吹奏管二支 , 笙二串 , 笛二支 , 雲鑼兩架 , 大鼓一面 , 饒、鈸各一副 , 檔子一面 , 鑷子(小鈸)一副 。在管樂中 , 管為九孔(前七後二) , 笙有十七簧 。根據北宋陳場《樂書》的記載 , 九孔管、十七簧笙為唐宋舊制 。演奏時 , 管子處於領奏地位 , 要求忠實於原譜 , 以奏出神韻佳 , 笙應富於節奏感;笛的演奏應自由活潑地穿插於旋律之中 。各種樂器的演奏者 , 既相互 照應又各自發揮所長 , 既避免單調齊奏又不得有亂章法!以此體現智化寺音樂的獨特風格 。

智化寺音樂的宮調有四調 , 藝僧們稱為"正、背、皆、月" , 即正調、背調、皆止調、月調 。其中"皆止調" , 據考證 , 就是唐代已被訛變為"歇指調"的"褐石調" 。"月調"就是唐代"越調"的"越"字之訛 。至於"背調"很可能就是唐樂中的"背 四調" 。可見智化寺音樂四調中有三個調名是與隋唐音樂相同的 。

智化寺音樂在樂譜、樂器、樂調、曲牌以及演奏技巧和方法上 , 都保留有唐宋燕樂甚至上溯到更遠年代的一些樂制 。正由於智化寺音樂 在教授方法、演奏技巧方面 , 堅持師徒相承 , 口傳心授 , 不許隨意變易的神聖性和特殊性 , 所以時至今日依舊保持佛教音樂特有的遠、虛、淡、靜的意境 。

京音樂的最大優點是保存了宋代古樂甚至更遠的隋唐燕樂遺音 , 為國內、國際都十分罕見的完整、隼硌、真實的古代音樂資料 。智化寺京音樂和西安城隍廟鼓樂、開封大相國寺音樂、五台山青黃寺音樂、和福建南音 , 同屬我國現存的最古老音樂 。 

音樂會門票分為$50 (貴賓保留區、可預先指定座位)及$30(不對號自由入座)兩種 , 學生票$15 (不對號自由座區)  。六 歲以下兒童請勿入場 。購票:喬登廳票房: 617-585-1260, 波士頓書局(前世界書局): 617-451-1309, 葉秀聰鋼琴 學校: 617-542-9129 。網站購票: 無手續費 。
$50: VIP Reserved Seats
$30: open seating at non-VIP section
$15: student open seating at non-VIP section
Children under 6 not admitted.

提供100張免費學生票 (14歲以上 , 每人一張) 請上 贈票網頁 索票 。
100 free student tickets available at only (1 per request for age 14 and up)

查詢: 中華表演藝術基金會會長譚嘉陵, 電話: 781-259-8195, 傳真: 781-259-9147,


荒漠錦堂曲聽後 - 音樂史的小考証

四月十號晚上 , 在NEC的喬頓廳聽了一場別開生面的音樂會 。

因曾為這次音樂會寫了一篇短序 , 會後主持人譚嘉陵女士與樂團團長分別要我寫點印象 。可是我沒有受過正規音樂訓練 , 豈敢在他們面前班門弄斧 。

對音樂史卻從大學生時代就感興趣 , 姑且從音樂史的角度談幾個小故事 。

這個音樂會的一個特點是曲目的組合與安排 。先是大家熟悉的江南絲竹《行街》 , 接著地方戲《河南梆子腔》 , 然後是三個現代人的作品 , 《綠腰》《離騷》與《陝北抒懷》 。

上半場最引起我注意的是胡建賓首演自己新作《離騷》 。下半場引人注意的是北京智化寺保留的古曲《晝錦堂》 , 胡建賓的新作《天空》 , 與古琴曲改編的《胡加十八拍》(塤、琵琶、大阮合奏) 。另外兩個合奏曲子也是相當重頭的《花兒與少年》與陳鋼改編的《陽光照耀在塔什庫爾干》 。

從古今對照的安排中 , 讓人明晰地感覺到中國音樂在潛移默化的過程之中 。

《行街》是廟會酬神婚嫁迎娶略帶點「鬧」的傳統民間音樂 。

智化寺的《錦堂》也是帶有宗教意義的寺廟音樂 。演奏形式五人環桌而坐 , 與從前做法事的法師們奏法曲完全一樣 。

荒漠與錦堂 , 是相反的訴求 ? 或是代表深層的同樣東西的文化符號 ?

另外幾個曲子也涉及夫婦母子君臣男女的人倫關係 。

西方人對音樂的起源有個很有趣的定義 : 音樂一方面是對神靈(自然)的呼喚 , 另方面也是對異性的呼喚 。

兩句話概刮了原始人的欲望、希望、絕望、與恐慌 。一般人會想寺廟音樂與浪漫音樂應該是相反的情緒 。(如果深一層想 , 宗教情懷常常與男女感情相提并論 。這在基督教是很尋常的事 。)換句話說 , 宗教音樂就是人與神的情歌 。讀過聖經《雅歌》的人 , 就會了解這兩種情懷的相似點 。

是否因為音樂本身有時候存在內部茅盾 , 互相攻伐的結構 , 所以人對音樂的品味也常帶一種十分茅盾的情緒 ?

在不同時代 , 人們期待不同的音樂 。《樂記》說 : 「五帝殊時 , 不相沿樂﹔三王異世 , 不相襲禮 。」只要聽聽孩子們所愛聽的音樂 , 我們就可以體會這句話的道理 。

即使是同一個人 , 他對音樂的認識也可以是很矛盾的 。舉孔子為例 : 他一方面說 : 「先進於禮樂 , 野人也 。後進於禮樂 , 君子也 。」(論語《先進》)但在《季氏》篇又說 : 「天下有道 , 則禮樂征伐自天子出 。天下無道 , 則禮樂征伐自諸侯出 。」他分明懂得音樂真正的來源是原始人(或鄉下人)胸中的激情 , 但是他又主張「禮樂」應該控制在中央政府的天子手裏面 。這與現代人一面歌頌人民工農的智慧 , 一面又建立中宣部控制「禮樂」內容的矛盾是一樣的道理 。(小百姓與天子反而容易溝通 , 當中夾著諸侯 , 就恐怕對天子或百姓有點不利 ? )音樂的內容 , 是否就是「人性內部矛盾張力」的彰現呢 ?

聖人的音樂就是山林裏面的情歌 , 寺廟音樂與錦堂風月一脈相連 ?

舉一個現代的例子 : 年輕時候老師教琴歌《關山月》 。「明月出天山 , 蒼茫雲海間 。….」總覺得這首歌曲典雅悲壯 , 古樸自然 。李白的歌詞確實意境不凡 。

但是後來據古琴名家王迪女士告訴我說 , 在清末的風月場中 , 這個曲子也是《盼郎郎不來》打情罵俏的調子 。

我常常懷疑 , 為什么中國音樂的規模 , 不及西洋音樂宏深而細密 ? 是不是中國文化 , 總不肯承認「呼喚神明」與「呼喚異性」同樣是聖潔的聲音﹗好像只有中國才有強烈的「黃色音樂」「淫樂」這個概念 。文革時候還出版過一本「怎樣識別黃色音樂」的小書 。

中國的樂器音樂比中國的歌曲變化多 , 累積也較豐富 。可能就是因為歌詞容易觸犯「禮教」的禁忌 。文字獄的餘怖猶在 。所以中國的歌不如西方發達 。

(上海萬博的宣傳歌曲的音樂 , 幾乎完全抄襲日本岡本真夜的名曲 。日本人在抗議中指責中國人有「抄襲癖」 。乾電池的商標用SQNY , 機(動)車的商標叫HONGDA 。含沙射影 , 投機取巧 。令人浩嘆 。)我們要關追究「不肯創作」的深層原因是什麼 ? 創作為什么常常會被扼殺 ?

樂記《樂論》篇有一段意義深刻的話 : 「樂者為同 , 禮者為異 。同則相親 , 異則相敬 。樂勝則流 , 禮勝則離 。」

我認為中國音樂要有所突破 , 必須弄通這段話的道理 。

君子與野人的音樂內涵是相同的 , 但是他們之間的禮儀身份是相異的 。相同使他們相親 , 相異使他們相敬 。上下同樂過份 , 就嫌太隨便 。禮節太拘謹又會產生距離 。這是一般人對這段話的解釋 。五四運動時代說「禮教食人」就是指音樂的本體性受到「天子」與「禮教」的腐蝕與干擾 。

本來儒家教育中有《六經》 , 後來只有《五經》 , 就是怕音樂的感染力太大 , 人民就會隨便起來 。今天的社會 , 似乎還有這種顧忌 。只有野人 , 對這種顧忌較淡 。

中國音樂往往過份著重溫柔敦厚 。「大同的齊奏」 , 缺乏「內部的張力與任性盡情的投入」 。這是傳統音樂的通病 。可能跟這種顧忌心很有關係 。

容我大膽的假設 , 在這個音樂會中 , 演奏者與作曲家似乎是有意的想從傳統當中突破出來 。

(音樂會後 , 樂團的藝術總監包健送我一張CD《延伸》 , 細聽這張CD的六個新作品 , 幾乎大部分在向音樂的「禮制」挑戰 。)

他們的作品 , 似乎在與(上引)《樂論》「樂者為同 , 禮者為異 。」抗辯 。樂不應盡同 , 禮不應盡異 , 因為時代在變 。這是我非常贊同的口號 。

但是傳統的「禮」仍然煙幕重重 , 雲封霧掩 , 揮之不去 。

除了「晝錦堂」完全依照傳統原汁原味以外 , 整個音樂會可以說 : 獨奏的部分比小合奏的部份好 , 小合奏的部分比大合奏好 。(當然另一個因素是練習)交響樂與協奏曲是傳統音樂比較弱的地方 , 是頗值得注意的情況 。

會後與東北大學音樂系系主任Anthony De Ritis 教授閒聊 , 他說他有計劃到北京短期訪問 , 打算專門研究「中國音樂交響樂創作」的作曲與編排技術問題 。

我問他 : 「那幾個曲目最令你感動 ? 」他想一下說 : 《晝錦堂》最讓他覺得演奏者整體投入在一個音樂個體裏面 。笙獨奏「天空」最讓他感動 。

這個音樂會另一個特點是樂器、樂曲與樂人三者之間的契合 。包健低沉而又嘹亮激昂的管子 。胡建賓的一支笙像一個小樂隊 , 金聲玉振 , 令人擊節 。陳濤攝人魂魄的塤與笛子 , 周懿柔中帶剛的琵琶 , 夏文傑會唱戲的板胡 , 楊悅柔美麗亮的二胡 , 王麗娜悠揚飄忽的揚琴 。

蔡振起的大阮讓人想起竹林七賢的音樂 。他的雲鑼與夏文傑的鼓為《錦堂》一曲撐起框架 , 平添風骨 。他們的(室內樂)小合奏讓人忘記他們是一個樂隊 , 好像一個多臂的音樂之神在演奏一件奇幻的樂器一般 。

《胡加十八拍》與《錦堂》讓人覺得像從敦煌石壁上飄下來的音樂 。《天空》可稱為一個人的合奏曲 。藍天白雲的回響 , 讓人心胸舒暢 。

《離騷》裏面的管子是一個中國士人剛健而低回的詠歎 , 與琵琶揚琴配合得天衣無縫 , 淡淡的色彩充分發揮了中國音樂的傳統特色 。當然 , 像《胡加十八拍》與《離騷》 , 聽眾可能先要了解曲名的文化內涵 , 才容易了解曲意 。「天不仁兮降離亂 , 地不仁兮使我逢此時 。….胡與漢兮異域殊風 , 天與地隔兮子西母東 。」漢代人的情意 , 振蕩著現代人的胸懷 。

亂世士人與家國疏離的悲哀 , 在離騷的管子與琵琶中淋漓盡致的刻畫出來 。這才是民族音樂的精華所在 。

但民族音樂如何讓西方聽眾甚至中國的年輕聽眾進入「樂境」之中 , 又是另一個問題 。舉一個明末歷史例子 。

在陸次雲的《(陳)圓圓傳》裏面 , 記載著一個闖王聽昆曲的故事 : 「李自成據宮掖 。 …..進圓圓 。自成驚且喜 , 遂命歌 。奏吳窬(俞字加欠) 。自成蹙額曰 , 何貌甚佳 , 而音殊不可耐也 ? 即命群姬唱西調 。操阮、箏、擊缶 。己拍掌以和之 。繁音激楚 , 熱耳酸心 。顧圓圓曰 , 此樂何如 ? 圓圓曰 : 此曲只應天上有 , 非南鄙之人所能及也 。」

這個故事生動而深刻地諷刺闖王的音樂品味 。今天的中西聽眾 , 何嘗不同樣喜愛「繁音激楚 , 熱耳酸心」的西調 ?

這個問題 , 只好留給今天的作曲家們去考慮了 。

音樂會後 , 在餐廳與各位音樂家小敘後 , 已近午夜 。在寂靜的街頭 , 眼望他們開面包車回紐約 。心頭又想起孔子的話 : 「先進於禮樂者 , 野人也 。」

野人是不是指巡回演出不倦的藝人們呢 ? 他們才是推進禮樂 , 創造文化的人啊 。

                    惠風 4/22/10



Thank you for your generous contribution to
Foundation for Chinese Performing Arts

Foundation for Chinese Performing Arts
Lincoln, Massachusetts
updated 2010